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Record Information
Creation Date2016-09-30 22:27:03 UTC
Update Date2020-06-04 21:02:30 UTC
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • BMDB00226
Metabolite Identification
Common NameOrotic acid
DescriptionOrotic acid, also known as orotate or orotsaeure, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as pyrimidinecarboxylic acids. These are pyrimidines with a structure containing a carboxyl group attached to the pyrimidine ring. Orotic acid exists as a solid, possibly soluble (in water), and an extremely weak basic (essentially neutral) compound (based on its pKa) molecule. Orotic acid exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans. Orotic acid is a potentially toxic compound. Orotic acid has been found to be associated with several diseases known as colorectal cancer, ulcerative colitis, canavan disease, and crohn's disease; also orotic acid has been linked to the inborn metabolic disorders including lysinuric protein intolerance.
Uracil-6-carboxylic acidChEBI
1,2,3,6-Tetrahydro-2,6-dioxo-4-pyrimidecarboxylic acidHMDB
1,2,3,6-Tetrahydro-2,6-dioxo-4-pyrimidinecarboxylic acidHMDB
2,6-Dihydroxy-4-pyrimidinecarboxylic acidHMDB
2,6-Dihydroxypyrimidine-4-carboxylic acidHMDB
2,6-Dioxo-1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-pyrimidine-4-carboxylic acidHMDB
2,6-Dioxo-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyrimidine-4-carboxylic acidHMDB
6-Uracilcarboxylic acidHMDB
Acide orotiqueHMDB
Acido oroticoHMDB
Acidum oroticumHMDB
Animal galactose factorHMDB
Vitamin b13HMDB
Whey factorHMDB
Zinc orotateHMDB
Orotate, zincHMDB
Acid, oroticHMDB
Orotate, potassiumHMDB
Potassium orotateHMDB
Orotate, sodiumHMDB
Sodium orotateHMDB
Chemical FormulaC5H4N2O4
Average Molecular Weight156.0963
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight156.017106626
IUPAC Name2,6-dioxo-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyrimidine-4-carboxylic acid
Traditional Nameorotic acid
CAS Registry Number65-86-1
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as pyrimidinecarboxylic acids. These are pyrimidines with a structure containing a carboxyl group attached to the pyrimidine ring.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
Sub ClassPyrimidines and pyrimidine derivatives
Direct ParentPyrimidinecarboxylic acids
Alternative Parents
  • Pyrimidine-6-carboxylic acid
  • Hydropyrimidine carboxylic acid derivative
  • Pyrimidone
  • Hydropyrimidine
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Vinylogous amide
  • Urea
  • Lactam
  • Azacycle
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting Point345.5 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1.82 mg/mL at 18 °CNot Available
LogP-0.83SANGSTER (1994)
Predicted Properties
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.83ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-6ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area95.5 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity33.27 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability12.46 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Detected and Quantified783 uM details
Detected and Quantified845 uM details
Detected and Quantified124 uM details
Detected and Quantified618 +/- 233 uM details
Detected and Quantified700 - 1200 uM details
Detected and Quantified578 uM details
Detected and Quantified53 uM details
Detected and Quantified515 uM details
Detected and Quantified49 - 419 uM details
Detected and Quantified192 - 448 uM details
Detected and Quantified418 uM details
Detected and Quantified257 +/- 4 uM
  • Carbohydrate Poly...
Detected but not QuantifiedNot Applicable details
Detected but not QuantifiedNot Applicable details
Detected but not QuantifiedNot Applicable details
Detected but not QuantifiedNot Applicable details
Detected but not QuantifiedNot Applicable details
Detected and Quantified208 - 1002 uM details
Detected and Quantified511 +/- 45 uM details
Detected and Quantified542 +/- 18 uM details
Detected and Quantified536 +/- 19 uM details
Detected and Quantified565 +/- 49 uM details
Detected and Quantified581 +/- 134 uM details
Detected and Quantified487 +/- 178 uM details
Detected and Quantified542 +/- 166 uM details
DrugBank IDDB02262
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB031072
KNApSAcK IDC00019689
Chemspider ID942
KEGG Compound IDC00295
BiGG ID34527
Wikipedia LinkOrotic_acid
PubChem Compound967
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID16742
Synthesis ReferenceMitchell, Herschel K.; Nyc, Joseph F. Intermediates in the synthesis of orotic acid from oxalacetic ester and urea. Journal of the American Chemical Society (1947), 69 674-7.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Motyl T, Krzeminski J, Podgurniak M, Witeszczak C, Zochowski P: Variability of orotic acid concentration in cow's milk. Endocr Regul. 1991 Jun;25(1-2):79-82. [PubMed:1958838 ]
  2. Motyl T, Barej W, Leontowicz H: The orotic acid concentration in the blood, milk, and urine of dairy cows fed with urea supplemented diet. Arch Tierernahr. 1986 Jun;36(6):551-6. [PubMed:3755899 ]
  3. Tiemeyer W, Stohrer M, Giesecke D: Metabolites of nucleic acids in bovine milk. J Dairy Sci. 1984 Apr;67(4):723-8. doi: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(84)81361-2. [PubMed:6539345 ]
  4. Robinson JL, Dombrowski DB, Clark JH, Shanks RD: Orotate in milk and urine of dairy cows with a partial deficiency of uridine monophosphate synthase. J Dairy Sci. 1984 May;67(5):1024-9. doi: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(84)81401-0. [PubMed:6547459 ]
  5. Gil A, Sanchez-Medina F: Acid-soluble nucleotides of cow's, goat's and sheep's milks, at different stages of lactation. J Dairy Res. 1981 Feb;48(1):35-44. [PubMed:7196410 ]
  6. Indyk HE, Woollard DC: Determination of orotic acid, uric acid, and creatinine in milk by liquid chromatography. J AOAC Int. 2004 Jan-Feb;87(1):116-22. [PubMed:15084094 ]
  7. Karatas F, Aydin S, Kaygusuzoglu E, Yildiz H, Erulas FA, Ozkan Y: Ghrelin and orotic acid increased in subclinical mastitis. Arch Physiol Biochem. 2008 Jul;114(3):178-82. doi: 10.1080/13813450802180940 . [PubMed:18629683 ]
  8. Klein MS, Buttchereit N, Miemczyk SP, Immervoll AK, Louis C, Wiedemann S, Junge W, Thaller G, Oefner PJ, Gronwald W: NMR metabolomic analysis of dairy cows reveals milk glycerophosphocholine to phosphocholine ratio as prognostic biomarker for risk of ketosis. J Proteome Res. 2012 Feb 3;11(2):1373-81. doi: 10.1021/pr201017n. Epub 2011 Dec 9. [PubMed:22098372 ]
  9. Melzer N, Wittenburg D, Hartwig S, Jakubowski S, Kesting U, Willmitzer L, Lisec J, Reinsch N, Repsilber D: Investigating associations between milk metabolite profiles and milk traits of Holstein cows. J Dairy Sci. 2013 Mar;96(3):1521-34. doi: 10.3168/jds.2012-5743. [PubMed:23438684 ]
  10. Sundekilde UK, Poulsen NA, Larsen LB, Bertram HC: Nuclear magnetic resonance metabonomics reveals strong association between milk metabolites and somatic cell count in bovine milk. J Dairy Sci. 2013 Jan;96(1):290-9. doi: 10.3168/jds.2012-5819. Epub 2012 Nov 22. [PubMed:23182357 ]
  11. Sundekilde UK, Gustavsson F, Poulsen NA, Glantz M, Paulsson M, Larsen LB, Bertram HC: Association between the bovine milk metabolome and rennet-induced coagulation properties of milk. J Dairy Sci. 2014 Oct;97(10):6076-84. doi: 10.3168/jds.2014-8304. Epub 2014 Jul 30. [PubMed:25087032 ]
  12. Buitenhuis AJ, Sundekilde UK, Poulsen NA, Bertram HC, Larsen LB, Sorensen P: Estimation of genetic parameters and detection of quantitative trait loci for metabolites in Danish Holstein milk. J Dairy Sci. 2013 May;96(5):3285-95. doi: 10.3168/jds.2012-5914. Epub 2013 Mar 15. [PubMed:23497994 ]
  13. Maher AD, Hayes B, Cocks B, Marett L, Wales WJ, Rochfort SJ: Latent biochemical relationships in the blood-milk metabolic axis of dairy cows revealed by statistical integration of 1H NMR spectroscopic data. J Proteome Res. 2013 Mar 1;12(3):1428-35. doi: 10.1021/pr301056q. Epub 2013 Feb 21. [PubMed:23394630 ]
  14. O'Callaghan TF, Vazquez-Fresno R, Serra-Cayuela A, Dong E, Mandal R, Hennessy D, McAuliffe S, Dillon P, Wishart DS, Stanton C, Ross RP: Pasture Feeding Changes the Bovine Rumen and Milk Metabolome. Metabolites. 2018 Apr 6;8(2). pii: metabo8020027. doi: 10.3390/metabo8020027. [PubMed:29642378 ]
  15. Antunes-Fernandes EC, van Gastelen S, Dijkstra J, Hettinga KA, Vervoort J: Milk metabolome relates enteric methane emission to milk synthesis and energy metabolism pathways. J Dairy Sci. 2016 Aug;99(8):6251-6262. doi: 10.3168/jds.2015-10248. Epub 2016 May 26. [PubMed:27236769 ]
  16. I.M.P.L.V.O Ferreira, A.M.P Gomes, M.A Ferreira (1998). Carbohydrate Polymers 37 (1998) 225-229. Carbohydrate Polymers.
  17. A. Foroutan et al. (2019). A. Foroutan et al. The Chemical Composition of Commercial Cow's Milk (in preparation). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.